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Napjainkban a Pycnogenol az egyik legkutatottabb természetes anyag: több mint 190 tudományos közlemény vizsgálta az utóbbi 35 évben, több mint 170 hivatkozással rendelkezik a Medline orvostudományi adatbázisban.

Referenciák

A Pycnogenol az egyik legismertebb természetes anyag : több mint 500 különböző Pycnogenol-alapú étrendkiegészítő/ kozmetikum/ funkcionális élelmiszer/ ital kapható világszerte

Pycnogenol alapú termékek

Szív-érrendszer

  • A Pycnogenol® a vércukorszint- és vérnyomáscsökkentő gyógyszerekkel együttadva szignifikáns mértékben tovább csökkentette a vércukorszintet, enyhítette a szív-érrendszeri rizikótényezőket, és lehetővé tette a vérnyomáscsökkentő gyógyszer dózisának csökkentését a nem inzulin dependens diabeteses betegek többségénél
    Zibadi, S., Rohdewald, P., Park, D. and Watson, R.R. (2008) Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes by Pycnogenol® supplementation. Nutrition Research, 28(5): 315-320.
  • Pycnogenol® lowers platelet hyperactivity more effectively than aspirin in a type I diabetes pharmacologic model suggesting a protective effect from thrombosis in diabetes. Nocun, M., Ulicna, O., Muchova, J., Durackova, Z. and Watala, C. (2007) French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) reduces thromboxane generation in blood from diabetic male rats. Biomed Pharmacother, 62(3): 168-172.
  • Pycnogenol® increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation by 42%, by enhancing synthesis of nitric oxide in young healthy men. Nishioka, K., Hidaka, T., Nakamura, S., Umemura, T., Jitsuiki, D., Soga, J., Goto, C., Chayama, K., Yoshizumi, M. and Higashi, Y. (2007)Pycnogenol®, French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. Hypertens Res, 30: 775-780.
  • Pycnogenol® counteracts viral infection and prevents development of virus-induced heart muscle inflammation.Matsumori, A., Higuchi, H. and Shimada, M. (2007) French maritime pine bark extract inhibits viral replication and prevents development of viral myocarditis.J Card Fail, 13 (9), 785-791.
  • Pycnogenol® prevents heart failure damage in mice. Zibadi, S., Yu, Q., Rohdewald, P.J., Larson, D.F. and Watson, R.R. (2007) Impact of Pycnogenol® on cardiac extracellular matrix remodeling induced by L-NAME administration to old mice. Cardiovasc Toxicol, 7: 10-18.
  • Pycnogenol® in vitro study provides evidence of strengthening heart muscle. Hasegawa, N., Kinoshita, H., and Mochizuki, M. (2007)Pycnogenol® Increases the Probability of the Contraction State in Chick Embryonic Cardiomyocytes, indicating Inotropic Effects. Phytother Res, 21: 181-182.
  • Pycnogenol® reduces oedema side effects in hypertensive subjects taking antihypertensive therapy.Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M.R., Ricci, A., Cornelli, U., Rohdewald, P., Ledda, A., Di Renzo, A., Stuard, S., Cacchio, M., Vinciguerra, G., Gizzi, G., Pellegrini, L., Dugall, M. and Fano, F. (2006).Control of Edema in Hypertensive Subjects Treated With Calcium Antagonist (Nifedipine) or Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors With Pycnogenol®. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost, 12(4): 440-444.
  • Pycnogenol® and Coenzyme Q10 enhance cardiovascular health synergistically. Watson, R.R. (2005) Nutraceutical Synergism: Pycnogenol® and Coenzyme Q10 Enhance Cardiovascular Health. Evid Based Integrative Med, 2(2): 67-70./li>
  • Pycnogenol® inhibits the most important pro-inflammatory enzymes, showing a strikingly rapid bioavailability.Schäfer, A., Chovanova, Z., Muchova, J., Sumegova, K., Liptakova, A., Durackova, Z. and Högger, P. (2005)Inhibition of Cox-1 and Cox-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®).Biomed Pharmacother, 60: 5-9.
  • Pycnogenol® as a nutraceutical in cardiovascular health and diabetes (Review). Gulati, O.P. (2005) The Nutraceutical Pycnogenol®: its role in cardiovascular health and blood glucose control. Biomed Rev, 16: 49-57.
  • Pycnogenol® increases red blood cell membrane fluidity and protects erythrocytes against oxidative stress. Sivonova, M., Waczulikova, I., Kilanczyk, E., Hrnciarova, M., Bryszewska, M., Klajnert, B. and Durackova, Z. (2004)The effect of Pycnogenol® on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Gen Physiol Biophys, 23: 39-51.
  • Pycnogenol® improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients and helps to lower the dose of the antihypertensive drug (Nifedipine) when administered simultaneously. Liu, X., Wei, J., Tan, F., Zhou, S., Würthwein, G. and Rohdewald, P. (2004) Pycnogenol® French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients. Life Sci, 74: 855-862.
  • Review of the positive effects of Pycnogenol® for cardiovascular health, based on the published clinical studies in the cardiovascular area.Watson, R.R. (2003) Pycnogenol® and cardiovascular health. Evid Based Integrative Med, 1(1): 27-32.
  • Pycnogenol® increases antioxidant capacity and lowers cholesterol in obese volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Devaraj, S., Vega-López, S., Kaul, N., Schönlau, F., Rohdewald, P. and Jialal, I. (2002) Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids, 37(10): 931-934.
  • Pycnogenol® reduces blood pressure, as shown in a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study performed in mildly hypertensive patients. Furthermore, Pycnogenol® significantly decreases the level of the vasoconstrictor factor (thromboxane) in blood of these patients. Hosseini, S., Lee, J., Sepulveda, R. T., Rohdewald, P. and Watson, R. R. (2001) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective, 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol® in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutr Res, 21: 1251-1260.
  • Pycnogenol® inhibits smoking-induced increased levels of thromboxane B2, the noxious agent involved in the increased platelet reactivity/aggregation in smokers. These results explain the mechanism of anti-platelet aggregation activity of Pycnogenol® observed in smokers. Araghi-Niknam, M., Hosseini, S., Larson D., Rohdewald, P. and Watson R.R. (1999) Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation. Int Med, 2(2/3): 73-77.
  • Pycnogenol® helps fighting against heart disease by inhibiting adhesion and aggregation of platelets and improving microcirculatory blood flow in humans. Wang, S., Tan, D., Zhao, Y., Gao, G., Gao, X. and Hu, L. (1999) The effect of Pycnogenol® on the microcirculation, platelet function and ischemic myocardium in patients with coronary artery diseases. Eur Bull Drug Res, 7(2): 19-25.
  • Pycnogenol® helps to maintain a healthy circulation through vasodilatation, anti platelet aggregation, free radical scavenging and capillary sealing effects. The role of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is also discussed. Rohdewald, P. (1999)Reducing the risk for stroke and heart infarction with Pycnogenol®. Eur Bull Drug Res, 7(2): 14-18.
  • Pycnogenol® inhibits smoking induced platelet aggregation in dose-dependent manner in humans. The effect lasts for more than 6 days and unlike aspirin, it does not produce increase in bleeding time. Pütter, M., Grotemeyer, K.H.M., Würthwein, G., Araghi-Niknam, M., Watson R.R., Hosseini, S. and Rohdewald, P. (1999) Inhibition of smoking-induced platelet aggregation by Aspirin and Pycnogenol®. Thromb Res, 95: 155-161.
  • Pycnogenol® counteracts the constriction of blood vessels due to stress. The vasorelaxant activity of Pycnogenol® is mediated through nitric oxide. Fitzpatrick, D.F., Bing, B. and Rohdewald, P. (1998) Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol®. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 32: 509-515.
  • Pycnogenol® inhibits the angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) and produces a moderate hypotensive effect in rats. Blazso, G., Gaspar R., Gabor, M., Rüve H-J and Rohdewald, P. (1996) ACE inhibition and hypotensive effect of procyanidinis containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol. Pharm Pharmacol Lett, 6(1): 8-11.

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